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Dr. Helbert Rondon presents four papers which cover important areas in Nephrology and reviews a series of case studies.

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Explain the mechanism by which brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia relates to its associated morbidity in the form of neurocognitive deficits, and gait impairment
  • Identify common side effects of chloride-rich intravenous fluids
  • List 2 drawbacks of using patiromer in the long-term treatment of hyperkalemia

Reading Resources:

  1. Rondon-Berrios H, Berl T.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Dec 7;10(12):2268-78.
  2. Mild Chronic Hyponatremia in the Ambulatory Setting: Significance and Management.
  3. Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S. Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May;21(5):733-5.
  4. Lobo DN, Awad S. Should chloride-rich crystalloids remain the mainstay of fluid resuscitation to prevent 'pre-renal' acute kidney injury?: con. Kidney Int. 2014 Dec;86(6):1096-105.


Drs. Rondon has reported no relevant relationships with any entities producing health care goods or services.

All presenters disclosure of relevant financial relationships with any any entity producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing health care goods or services, used on, or consumed by, patients is listed above.  No other planners, members of the planning committee, speakers, presenters, authors, content reviewers and/or anyone else in a position to control the content of this education activity have relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.1) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to 1 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

Release Date: 5/12/2016 | Last Modified On: 5/12/2016 | Expires: 5/12/2017

This course has been expired.