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The UPMC Department of Neurological Surgery has been at the forefront of the development of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures for decades. Examples include the popularization of microvascular decompression surgery for cranial nerve disorders, the Gamma Knife® radiosurgery program, and the Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for brain tumors and lesions. Similarly, the Neuroendoport® program at UPMC, formally established in 2008, has facilitated the removal of deep-seated and intraventricular brain tumors with minimal brain dissection.

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Explain the variability in prognostication in clival chordomas to patients.
  • Improve prognostication in clinical practice in the treatment of clival chordomas
  • Request the appropriate molecular markers for prognostication

Reading Resources:

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, et al: The 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Acta Neuropathol 114:97-109, 2007
  2. Cancer Genome Atlas Research N: Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways. Nature 455:1061-8, 2008
  3. Unni AM, Bondar T, Medzhitov R: Intrinsic sensor of oncogenic transformation induces a signal for innate immunosurveillance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1686-91, 2008
  4. Zhang X, Rao A, Sette P, et al: IDH mutant gliomas escape natural killer cell immune surveillance by downregulation of NKG2D ligand expression. Neuro Oncol, 2016


Nduka Amankulor, MD, Johnathan Engh, MD, Paul Gardner, MD, and Georgios Zenonos, MD, have reported no relationships with any entities producing health care goods or services.

All presenters disclosure of relevant financial relationships with any entity producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing health care goods or services, used on, or consumed by, patients is listed above.  No other planners, members of the planning committee, speakers, presenters, authors, content reviewers and/or anyone else in a position to control the content of this education activity have relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of .5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.05) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to .5 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

Release Date: 10/4/2016 | Last Modified On: 10/4/2016 | Expires: 10/4/2017

This course has been expired.