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In this issue of Orthopaedic Restore, several specialists discuss multidisciplinary research study on the anterolateral capsule of the knee, biofilms in periprosthetic joint infections, and the field of dance medicine and science.

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Discuss the role of the anterolateral capsule as a secondary restraint to rotatory knee instability
  • Explain the role of bacterial persisters in orthopaedic infection
  • Review common injuries in the dancer athlete

Reading Resources:

  1. Koutedakis Y, Jamurtas A. The Dancer as a Performing Athlete: Physiological Considerations. Sports Medicine. 2004;34(10):651-661.
  2. Steinberg N, Aujla I, Zeev A, Redding E. Injuries Among Talented YoungDancers: Findings From the UK Centres for Advanced Training. International Journal of Sports Medicine. Mar 2014;35(3):238-244.
  3. Bronner S, Ojofeitimi S, Rose D. Injuries in a Modern Dance Company: Effect of Comprehensive Management on Injury Incidence and Time Loss. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. May-Jun 2003;31(3):365-373.
  4. Garrick JG, Requa RK. Ballet Injuries. An Analysis of Epidemiology and Financial Outcome. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. Jul-Aug 1993;21(4):586-590.
  5. Nilsson C, Leanderson J, Wykman A, Strender LE. The Injury Panorama in a Swedish Professional Ballet Company. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. Official Journal of the ESSKA. Jul 2001;9(4):242-246.
  6. Solomon R, Solomon J, Micheli LJ, McGray E. The “Cost” of Injuries in a Professional Ballet Company: A Five-Year Study. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. 1999;14(4):164-169.
  7. Byhring S, Bo K. Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Norwegian National Ballet: A Prospective Cohort Study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. Dec 2002;12(6):365-370.
  8. Shah S, Weiss DS, Burchette RJ. Injuries in Professional Modern Dancers: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Management. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science: Official Publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science. Mar 2012;16(1):17-25.
  9. Jacobs CL, Hincapie CA, Cassidy JD. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Pain in Dancers: A Systematic Review Update. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science. 2012;16:74-84.
  10. Allen N, Nevill A, Brooks J, Koutedakis Y, Wyon M. Ballet Injuries: Injury Incidence and Severity Over 1 Year. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Sep 2012;42(9):781-790.


Drs. Ata A. Rahnemai-azar, Sebastián Irarrázaval, Carola F. van Eck, Richard E. Debski, Freddie H. Fu, Valerie Williams, Kathleen Nachazel, and Erica Coffey report no relevant relationships with any entities producing health care goods or services.

Dr. Kenneth Urish has financial interests with the following any entity or entities producing health care goods or services as indicated below:

  • Grant/Research Support: NIH KL2, CTSI BaCCoR, CMRF
  • Other: AAOS BME Comittee

Dr. Volker Musahl has financial interests with the following any entity or entities producing health care goods or services as indicated below:

  • Consultant: Recieves funding from Smith & Nephew as a consultant
  • Other: Volker Musahl is part of the group that hold patient for a clinical software not related to research presented in current article.

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of .5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.05) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to .5 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

Release Date: 1/5/16 | Last Modified On: 1/5/16 | Expires: 1/5/17

This course has been expired.