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Dr. S. Tonya Stefko reviews the orbital anatomy, reviews the transorbital and lateral orbital approaches, and provides some case examples.

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Describe the most important surface landmarks for transorbital neurosurgical approaches.
  • List indications for lateral orbital approach.
  • Describe medial orbital approaches to skull base pathology.

Reading Resources:

  1. Salma A, Alkandari A, Sammet S, Ammirati M. Lateral supraorbital approach vs pterional approach: an anatomic qualitative and quantitative evaluation. Neurosurgery. 2011 Jun;68(2 Suppl Operative):364-72.
  2. Chalouhi N, Jabbour P, Ibrahim I, Starke RM, Younes P, El Hage G, Samaha E. Surgical treatment of ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms: comparison of pterional and supraorbital keyhole approaches. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72(3):437-41; discussion 441-2.
  3. Gardner PA, Paluzzi A, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Tormenti M, Stefko ST, Snyderman CH, Maroon JC.  “Round the clock” surgical access to the orbit.  J Neurol Surg B. 2015 Feb;76(1):12-24.


Dr. Stefko has reported no relevant relationships with any entities producing health care goods or services.

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of .5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.05) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to .5 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

Release Date: 10/29/15 | Last Modified On: 10/29/15 | Expires: 10/31/16

This course has been expired.