As the rates of diabetes mellitus (DM) continue to rise,
health systems and providers are being challenged to meet the demands of
high-quality, high-value care, particularly for those patients at highest risk.
This is occurring while new tools for managing diabetes are being introduced to
providers and patients at an exponential rate.
Upon completion of this activity, participants should be
- Recognize molecular mechanism mediating the
effects of physical activity
- Expand their differential diagnosis of
hypercalcemia to include ectopic-PTH secreting neuroendocrine tumor and thus be
able to recognize this rare etiology if it presents
- Improve their management of and be able to
choose effective treatments for hypercalcemia
- Booth, F.W., Roberts, C.K., and
Laye, M.J. (2012). Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases.
Comprehensive Physiology 2,
(2017). Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Physical activity and
M.A. (2017). Exercise metabolism in 2016: Health benefits of exercise - more
than meets the eye! Nature reviews. Endocrinology.
P.D., Bamman, M.M., Muoio, D.M., Bouchard, C., Cooper, D.M., Goodpaster, B.H.,
Booth, F.W., Kohrt, W.M., Gerszten, R.E., Mattson, M.P., et al. (2015).
Understanding the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Physical
- Activity-Induced Health Benefits. Cell metabolism 22, 4-11.
B.A., Gomes, C.P., Almeida, J.A., de Oliveira, G.P., Jr., Ribeiro, F.M.,
Pereira, R.W., and Franco, O.L. (2017). The Effects of Acute and Chronic
Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Proteome. Journal of cellular physiology 232, 257-
M., and Demontis, F. (2016). Systemic Nutrient and Stress Signaling via
Myokines and Myometabolites. Annual review of physiology 78, 85-107.
- Whitham, M., and Febbraio, M.A.
(2016). The ever-expanding myokinome: discovery challenges and therapeutic
implications. Nature reviews. Drug discovery
- Kandil E, Noureldine S, Khalek M,
Daroca P, Friedlander P. Ectopic Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone in a
Neuroendocrine Tumour: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Int J Clin
Exp Med. 2011; 4(3): 234–240.
- VanHouten JN, Yu N, Rimm D, et al.
Hypercalcemia of Malignancy Due to Ectopic Transactivation of the Parathyroid
Hormone Gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91(2): 580–583.
- Nussbaum SR, Gaz RD, Arnold A.
Hypercalcemia and Ectopic Secretion of Parathyroid Hormone by an Ovarian
Carcinoma With Rearrangement of the Gene for Parathyroid Hormone. N Engl J Med.
1990; 323(19): 1324–1328.
- Vacher-Coponat H, Opris A, Denizot
A, Dussol P, Berland Y. Hypercalcemia Induced by Excessive Parathyroid Hormone
Secretion in a Patient With a Neuroendocrine Tumour. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
2005; 20(12): 2832–2835.
- Doyle MA, Malcolm JC. An Unusual
Case of Malignancyrelated Hypercalcemia. Int J Gen Med. 2014; 7: 21–27.
- Silverberg SJ, Rubin MR, Faiman C,
Peacock M, Shoback DM, Smallridge RC, Schwanauer LE, Olson KA, Klassen P,
Bilezikian JP. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Reduces the Serum Calcium Concentration
in Inoperable Parathyroid
- Carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(10):
- Vellanki P, Lange K, Elaraj D, et
al. Denosumab for Management of Parathyroid Carcinoma-mediated Hypercalcemia. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99: 387-90.
- Baron R, Ferrari S, Russell RG.
Denosumab and Bisphosphonates: Different Mechanisms of Action and Effects.
Bone. 2011; 48: 677–92
All contributing authors report no relationships with
any entities producing health care goods or services.
All presenters disclosure of relevant financial
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is listed above. No other planners,
members of the planning committee, speakers, presenters, authors, content
reviewers and/or anyone else in a position to control the content of this
education activity have relevant financial relationships to disclose.
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The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates
this enduring material for a maximum of .5 AMA PRA Category 1
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the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care
professionals are awarded (0.05) continuing education units (CEU) which are
equivalent to .5 contact hour.
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Release Date: 2/13/2017 | Last Modified On: 2/13/2017 | Expires: 2/13/2018