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Dr. Paul Gardner reviews the different principles of endonasal surgery and reconstruction options. 

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Recognize the extent of access provided by endoscopic endonasal approaches
  • Recognize reconstruction options following endoscopic skull base surgery
  • Implement the key principles of endoscopic endonasal access

Reading Resources:

  1. Kassam A, Snyderman CH, Mintz A, Gardner P, Carrau RL:  Expanded endonasal approach: the rostrocaudal axis. Part I. Crista galli to the sella turcica. Neurosurg Focus.  2005 Jul 15;19(1):E3. 
  2. Kassam A, Snyderman CH, Mintz A, Gardner P, Carrau RL:  Expanded endonasal approach: the rostrocaudal axis. Part II. Posterior clinoids to the foramen magnum. Neurosurg Focus.  2005 Jul 15;19(1):E4. 
  3. Hadad G, Bassagasteguy L, Carrau RL, Mataza JC, Kassam A, Snyderman CH, Mintz A.  A novel reconstructive technique after endoscopic expanded endonasal approaches: vascular pedicle nasoseptal flap.  Laryngoscope.  2006 Oct;116(10):1882-6. 
  4. Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Zanation A, Prevedello D, Gardner P, Mintz A.  Endoscopic skull base surgery: principles of endonasal oncological surgery.  J Surg Oncol. 2008 Jun;97(8):658-64. 
  5. Koutourousiou M, Gardner PA, Tormenti MJ, Henry SL, Stefko ST, Kassam AB, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Snyderman CH.  Endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of cranial base chordomas: outcomes and learning curve.  Neurosurgery.  2012 Sep;71(3):614-25.
  6. Koutourousiou M, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Stefko ST, Wang EW, Snyderman CH, Gardner PA.  Endoscopic endonasal surgery for suprasellar meningiomas: experience with 75 patients.  J Neurosurg. 2014 Jun;120(6):1326-39.
  7. Paluzzi A, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Stefko ST, Challinor S, Snyderman CH, Gardner PA.  Endoscopic endonasal approach for pituitary adenomas: a series of 555 patients. Pituitary. 2014 Aug;17(4):307-19.


Dr. Gardner has reported no relevant relationships with any entities producing health care goods or services.

All presenters disclosure of relevant financial relationships with any entity producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing health care goods or services, used on, or consumed by, patients is listed above.  No other planners, members of the planning committee, speakers, presenters, authors, content reviewers and/or anyone else in a position to control the content of this education activity have relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.1) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to 1.0 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

**This activity provides AMA/ACCME Category I CME and self-assessment credits toward Part 2 of the ABS MOC Program.

Release Date: 10/21/2015 | Last Modified On: 2/13/2017 | Expires: 2/13/2018

This course has been expired.