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Dr. Oscar Escobar discusses the history of human growth.

Educational objectives:

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Discuss the importance of growth as a marker of health
  • Describe the multiple factors involved in growth leading to normal variation and growth disorders
  • Review strategies for management of growth disorders

Reading Resources:

  1. Rosenbloom A. Pediatric Endo-Cosmetology and the Evolution of Growth Diagnosis and Treatment. J Pediatr 2011;158(2):187-193
  2. Sandberg DE, Colsman M. Assessment of Psychosocial Aspect of Short Stature. Growth Genetics & Hormones 2005; 21(2):17-25. []
  3. Alatzoglou KS, Dattani M. Genetic Causes and Treatment of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency-an update. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2010;6:562-576
  4. Quigley CA.  Growth Hormone Treatment of Non-Growth Hormone-Deficient Growth Disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 2007;36:131-186
  5. Lopez-Bermejo et al. Genetic Defects of the Growth Hormone-Insulin-like Growth Factor Axis. TEM 2000;11(2):39-49
  6. Rosenbloom A. Is there a Role for Recombinant Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 in the Treatment of Idiopathic Short Stature? Lancet 2006;368:612-616
  7. Dauber A, Hirschhorn JN. Genome-Wide Association Studies in Pediatric Endocrinology. Horm Res Paediatr 2011;75:322-328
  8. Hirschhorn JN, Lettre G. Progress in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Human Height. Horm Res 2009;7:71(suppl 2):5-13


Dr. Escobar has financial interests with the following any entity or entities producing health care goods or services as indicated below:

  • Grant/Research Support: Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, Endo Pharmaceuticals, Versartis

Accreditation Statement:

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.75 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM. Each physician should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Other health care professionals are awarded (0.075) continuing education units (CEU) which are equivalent to 0.75 contact hour.

For your credit transcript, please access our website 4 weeks post-completion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page. If you do not provide the last 5 digits of your SSN on the next page you will not be able to access a CME credit transcript. Providing your SSN is voluntary.

Release Date: 5/7/2013 | Last Modified On: 4/16/2105 | Expires: 4/18/2016

This course has been expired.