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In Session 4 of the Pediatric Cardiac Morphology Master Class, Robert Anderson, MD, FRCPath, Mark DeBrunner, MD, and Diane Spicer, BS, PA (ASCP), present about ventricular septal defects (VSDs).

  • Dr. Anderson opens the session with an overview in the development of the ventricular septum 
  • Ms. Spicer explains how to classify VSDs
  • Dr. DeBrunner presents specific examples and reviews scans of VSDs
  • Dr. Anderson concludes the session by identifying controversies in the description of VSDs

Educational Objectives 

Upon completion of this activity, participants should be able to:

  • Define the different types of VSDs
  • Describe the anatomy features of an Eisenmenger’s VSD
  • Review the problems that exist in categorizing VSDs
  • List the phenotypic features in classifying VSDs


Dr. Anderson, Dr. DeBrunner, and Ms. Spicer have reported no relevant relationships with entities producing health care goods or services.

All presenters' disclosures of relevant financial relationships with any entity producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing health care goods or services used on or consumed by patients is listed above. No other planners, members of the planning committee, speakers, presenters, authors, content reviewers, and/or anyone else in a position to control the content of this education activity have relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Accreditation Statement

In support of improving patient care, the University of Pittsburgh is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

The University of Pittsburgh designates enduring material activity for a maximum of 1.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit[s]™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Other health care professionals will receive a certificate of attendance confirming the number of contact hours commensurate with the extent of participation in this activity.

For your credit transcript, please access our website four weeks postcompletion at and follow the link to the Credit Transcript page.

Release Date: 6/4/2020 | Last Modified On: 6/4/2020 | Expires: 6/4/2021

This course has been expired.